Urinalysis, also known as a urine test, involves laboratory examination of a urine sample. Even without any urinary symptoms, urinalysis is typically included as part of routine physical examinations.
Doctors commonly request urinalysis for pregnant women during prenatal checks or for patients before undergoing surgery to screen for conditions such as diabetes, kidney or liver diseases. Urinalysis can also be used for diagnostic purposes when symptoms like abdominal pain, back pain, frequent urination, difficulty or pain during urination, blood in the urine, or other urinary symptoms are present.
Furthermore, patients with kidney or urinary tract diseases may undergo regular urinalysis to monitor the progression of their condition and assess the effectiveness of treatment.
Urinalysis can help diagnose conditions such as diabetes, kidney diseases, and liver diseases. After the urine is sent to the laboratory, urinalysis can also detect urinary tract infections, dehydration, sexually transmitted infections, or kidney stones under a microscope.
To ensure accurate test results, there are several things to keep in mind during the urine collection process:
If the container is contaminated, it can directly affect the test results. For urine cultures, it is necessary to use a sterilized sterile container. Before collecting the urine sample, thoroughly clean your hands.
Generally, there are no specific time restrictions for urine collection. However, for certain tests like pregnancy tests or bacterial cultures, it is recommended to collect the first-morning urine sample. If a woman is menstruating, it is advisable to avoid urine testing to prevent interference with the results.
Before collection, thoroughly clean the genital area to prevent vaginal secretions from mixing with the urine. If pubic hair falls into the container, do not try to retrieve it with your fingers or any instrument. If a midstream urine test is required, carefully start urinating, discard the initial portion of urine (the first part of the stream), and then collect the midstream urine in the container, avoiding any contamination.
Urinalysis is a commonly included test in physical examinations and can be conducted in clinics and various hospitals.
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Through the process of interpreting urinalysis reports, we can gain insights into one’s health. The following are common parameters in a urinalysis:
|High concentration||Dehydration, diabetes, nephrotic syndrome, multiple myeloma, or contrast agent injection may cause high urine concentration.|
|Low concentration||Low concentration Acute or chronic kidney failure, hypokalemia, hypercalcemia, or urinary obstruction may cause low urine concentration.|
Conditions such as acute nephritis, cystitis, urinary tract infection, urolithiasis, or tumors can lead to the presence of red blood cells in urine.
Normally, urine does not contain glucose. The presence of glucose in the urine is highly indicative of diabetes.
The presence of protein in urine indicates a high probability of acute or chronic nephritis, cystitis, urinary tract infection, or renal disease. Additionally, urinary protein increases in the case of urinary tract infections or renal pathology.
For general urine testing, there is no specific time requirement for urine collection. However, if the test is for purposes such as pregnancy testing or bacterial culture, it is recommended to collect the first-morning urine sample. This is because in early pregnancy, the concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the body is usually lower, and drinking excessive water before the test can dilute the concentration of hCG in the urine. Therefore, using the first-morning urine is ideal for such tests.
It is generally recommended to avoid urine testing during the menstrual period in women to prevent the interference of blood in the urine sample, which can lead to a false diagnosis of hematuria (blood in the urine).
Pregnant women undergo regular urine testing during prenatal check-ups to assess kidney function and overall nutritional status during pregnancy. Additionally, the urine is checked for the presence of bacteria, red blood cells, protein, or glucose, among other things. This helps monitor for acute issues such as urinary tract infections and the development of conditions like gestational hypertension or gestational diabetes. Early detection of these conditions allows for appropriate treatment to be provided promptly, ensuring the health of both the mother and the baby.